**Absorbed dose** is defined as the amount of energy deposited by ionizing radiation in a substance. **Absorbed dose** is given the symbol **D**. The absorbed dose is usually measured in a unit called the **gray** (Gy), which is derived from the SI system. The non-SI unit **rad** is sometimes also used, predominantly in the USA.

## Calculation of Shielded Dose Rate

Assume the **point isotropic source** which contains **1.0 Ci of ^{137}Cs**, which has a half-life of

**30.2 years**. Note that the relationship between half-life and the amount of a radionuclide required to give an activity of one curie is shown below. This amount of material can be calculated using λ, which is the decay constant of certain nuclide:

About 94.6 percent decays by beta emission to a metastable nuclear isomer of barium: barium-137m. The main photon peak of Ba-137m is **662 keV**. For this calculation, assume that all decays go through this channel.

**Determine the primary photon dose rate**, in gray per hour (Gy.h^{-1}), at the outer surface of a 5 cm thick lead shield. Primary photon dose rate neglects all secondary particles. Assume that the effective distance of the source from the dose point is **10 cm**. We shall also assume that the dose point is soft tissue and it can reasonably be simulated by water and we use the mass energy absorption coefficient for water.

See also: Gamma Ray Attenuation

See also: Shielding of Gamma Rays

**Solution:**

The primary photon dose rate is attenuated exponentially, and the dose rate from primary photons, taking account of the shield, is given by:

As can be seen, we do not account for the buildup of secondary radiation. If secondary particles are produced or if the primary radiation changes its energy or direction, then the effective attenuation will be much less. This assumption generally underestimates the true dose rate, especially for thick shields and when the dose point is close to the shield surface, but this assumption simplifies all calculations. For this case the true dose rate (with the buildup of secondary radiation) will be more than two times higher.

To calculate the **absorbed dose rate**, we have to use in the formula:

- k = 5.76 x 10
^{-7} - S = 3.7 x 10
^{10}s^{-1} - E = 0.662 MeV
- μ
_{t}/ρ = 0.0326 cm^{2}/g (values are available at NIST) - μ = 1.289 cm
^{-1}(values are available at NIST) - D = 5 cm
- r = 10 cm

**Result:**

The resulting absorbed dose rate in grays per hour is then:

If we want to account for the buildup of secondary radiation, then we have to include the buildup factor. The **extended formula** for the dose rate is then:

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